Multivitamin Use Not Associated With Women’s Risk Of Cancer, Heart Disease Or Death

Postmenopausal women who take multivitamins appear to have the same risk of most common cancers, cardiovascular disease or dying of any cause as women who do not take multivitamin supplements, according to a report in the February 9 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals. About half of Americans use dietary supplements, spending more than $20 billion per year on these products, according to background information in the article. “The motivations for supplement use vary, but common reasons include the belief that these preparations will prevent chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease,” the authors write. “These views are often fueled by product health claims, consumer testimonials and…

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Pre-segmented 2-Step IMRT with subsequent direct machine parameter optimisation – a planning study

Background:
Modern intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) mostly uses iterative optimisation methods. The integration of machine parameters into the optimisation process of step and shoot leaf positions has been shown to be successful. For IMRT segmentation algorithms based on the analysis of the geometrical structure of the planning target volumes (PTV) and the organs at risk (OAR), the potential of such procedures has not yet been fully explored. In this work, 2-Step IMRT was combined with subsequent direct machine parameter optimisation (DMPO-Raysearch Laboratories, Sweden) to investigate this potential.
Methods:
In a planning study DMPO on a commercial planning system was compared with manual primary 2-Step IMRT segment generation followed by DMPO optimisation. 15 clinical cases and the ESTRO Quasimodo phantom were employed. Both the same number of optimisation steps and the same set of objective values were used. The plans were compared with a clinical DMPO reference plan and a traditional IMRT plan based on fluence optimisation and consequent segmentation. The composite objective value (the weighted sum of quadratic deviations of the objective values and the related points in the dose volume histogram) was used as a measure for the plan quality. Additionally, a more extended set of parameters was used for the breast cases to compare the plans.
Results:
The plans with segments pre-defined with 2-Step IMRT were slightly superior to DMPO alone in the majority of cases. The composite objective value tended to be even lower for a smaller number of segments. The total number of monitor units was slightly higher than for the DMPO-plans. Traditional IMRT fluence optimisation with subsequent segmentation could not compete.
Conclusion:
2-Step IMRT segmentation is suitable as starting point for further DMPO optimisation and, in general, results in less complex plans which are equal or superior to plans generated by DMPO alone.

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Transgene Confirms Longer Survival For Patients Treated With TG4010 In Its Ongoing Phase IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Trial

Strasbourg, France — Transgene S.A. today announced additional data from the ongoing controlled Phase IIb clinical study of its therapeutic vaccine TG4010 (MVA-MUC1-IL2) as an adjunct to first line chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The data at 21 months of median follow up confirms a statistically- significant 6-month increase in median survival (17.1 months in the experimental arm versus 11.3 months in the control arm) in patients with normal levels of activated Natural Killer cells at baseline (some 75% of the patients in the trial), a sub-population identified by Transgene’s biomarker programme([1]). The measurement of this biomarker is based on flow cytometry, a technique r…

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Lung Cancer Microscopic Appearance Affects Response To Chemotherapy

DURHAM, N.C. — A tumor’s cellular structure, or histology, improves treatment decisions that may lead to improved outcomes for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most common type of lung cancer, according to a paper in the latest issue of “The Oncologist.” The findings are based on an analysis of recent studies of the chemotherapy drug pemetrexed to treat NSCLC. “The data confirm that histology matters when treating NSCLC,” says Professor Giorgio Scagliotti, M.D., of University of Turin, lead author of the new report. Prof. Scagliotti and colleagues analyzed data from two recent phase III studies of pemetrexed for NSCLC, which accounts for about 90 percent of all lung cancers. They focused on how…

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Intrafraction motion of the prostate during an IMRT session: a fiducial-based 3D measurement with Cone-beam CT

Background:
Image-guidance systems allow accurate interfractional repositioning of IMRT treatments, however, these may require up to 15 minutes. Therefore intrafraction motion might have an impact on treatment precision. 3D geometric data regarding intrafraction prostate motion are rare; we therefore assessed its magnitude with pre- and post-treatment fiducial-based imaging with cone-beam-CT (CBCT).
Methods:
39 IMRT fractions in 5 prostate cancer patients after 125I-seed implantation were evaluated. Patient position was corrected based on the 125I-seeds after pre-treatment CBCT. Immediately after treatment delivery, a second CBCT was performed. Differences in bone- and fiducial position were measured by seed-based grey-value matching.
Results:
Fraction time was 13.6 ± 1.6 minutes. Median overall displacement vector length of 125I-seeds was 3 mm (M = 3 mm, Σ = 0.9 mm, σ = 1.7 mm; M: group systematic error, Σ: SD of systematic error, σ: SD of random error). Median displacement vector of bony structures was 1.84 mm (M = 2.9 mm, Σ = 1 mm, σ = 3.2 mm). Median displacement vector length of the prostate relative to bony structures was 1.9 mm (M = 3 mm, Σ = 1.3 mm, σ = 2.6 mm).
Conclusion:
a) Overall displacement vector length during an IMRT session is < 3 mm.b) Positioning devices reducing intrafraction bony displacements can further reduce overall intrafraction motion.c) Intrafraction prostate motion relative to bony structures is < 2 mm and may be further reduced by institutional protocols and reduction of IMRT duration.

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Skin Cancer Prevention – 5 Crucial, Yet Critical Tips

As summer approaches, we are all reminded how quickly the beautiful, warm sun causes premature aging and also skin cancer. But is there a balance between enjoying the sun and also have piece of mind knowing you are reducing your risk of skin cancer? Absolutely.

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Phase III Study Showed Tarceva In Combination With Avastin As First-Line Maintenance Therapy Improved Progression-Free Survival In Advanced Lung Cancer

Genentech, Inc. announced that a Phase III study (ATLAS) of Tarceva (erlotinib) in combination with Avastin (bevacizumab) as maintenance therapy following initial treatment with Avastin plus chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) met its primary endpoint. The study was stopped early on the recommendation of an independent data safety monitoring board after a pre-planned interim analysis showed that combining Tarceva and Avastin significantly extended the time patients lived without their disease advancing, as defined by progression-free survival (PFS), compared to Avastin plus placebo. A preliminary safety analysis showed adverse events were consistent with previous Avastin or Tarceva studies, as well as trials evaluati…

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New Study Aims To Boost Lung Cancer Early Detection

An Australian-first research project is hoping the use of a more delicate screening process to help boost early detection of lung cancer. But a doctor involved in the study says recruitment of patients for the study has been initially slow, because of a public perception that lung cancer is a self-inflicted disease. Lung cancer is the biggest cause of cancer deaths in the world, with 7,000 deaths in Australia and 8,000 new cases detected each year. The project uses computer tomography (CT) scans to spot potential cancer nodules in the chest region that a traditional chest X-ray might not detect. Prince Charles Hospital researcher Doctor Henry Marshall says so far around 30 people have volunteered for the project. “Smoking and…

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Normal tissue toxicity after small field hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation

Stereotactic body radiation (SBRT) is an emerging tool in radiation oncology in which the targeting accuracy is improved via the detection and processing of a three-dimensional coordinate system that is aligned to the target. With improved targeting accuracy, SBRT allows for the minimization of normal tissue volume exposed to high radiation dose as well as the escalation of fractional dose delivery. The goal of SBRT is to minimize toxicity while maximizing tumor control. This review will discuss the basic principles of SBRT, the radiobiology of hypofractionated radiation and the outcome from published clinical trials of SBRT, with a focus on late toxicity after SBRT. While clinical data has shown SBRT to be safe in most circumstances, more data is needed to refine the ideal dose-volume metrics.

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Study Examines Racial Disparities In Survival Among Patients Diagnosed With Lung Cancer

Disparities in survival among black patients diagnosed with early-stage lung cancer are not seen when patients are recommended appropriate treatment, according to a report in the January issue of Archives of Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals. Lung cancer causes more deaths in the United States than any other cancer, according to background information in the article. Pulmonary resection or surgery to remove a portion of the lung provides the best chance for patients with early-stage disease to be cured. “Black patients with early-stage lung cancer have lower five-year survival rates than white patients, and this difference in outcome has been attributed to lower rates of resection among black patients,” the authors write. “Sever…

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