Breast Cancer: What Women Should Know

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From relative obscurity, breast cancer has become one of the leading causes of deaths among women in the world. In 2001, about 200,000 cases of breast cancer have been reported in the United States, making it the second leading cause of cancer death in the US. It is, in fact, the most common malignancy problem that is affecting women in North America and Europe today.

But what is breast cancer and how do people get it?

Breast cancer occurs when malignant tumors in the…

breast cancer

From relative obscurity, breast cancer has become one of the leading causes of deaths among women in the world. In 2001, about 200,000 cases of breast cancer have been reported in the United States, making it the second leading cause of cancer death in the US. It is, in fact, the most common malignancy problem that is affecting women in North America and Europe today.

But what is breast cancer and how do people get it?

Breast cancer occurs when malignant tumors in the breast grow and start to affect other tissues in the body. There is still no clear indications how tumors are created but what is often observed is that cancerous cells usually comes from ducts or glands.

Although women’s health organizations advise women to massage the breast daily and to feel for any lumps, it may a long time before a cancerous cell get big enough for us to feel it. By that time, it may already be too late. Doctors make use of mammograms for their diagnosis.

Breast at risk

All women are actually at risk, with the risk increasing with the presence of some risk factors that are already part of the natural cycle, for example, aging. Family history of breast cancer can also significantly affect the prognosis as heredity has been found to play a role. Women who got their periods before they were 12 years old and those who never had or had children after 30 years old are also more likely to develop breast cancer.

There are also risk factors that medical science can help alter such as hormonal problems through replacement therapies. Women are also advised to decrease their consumption of alcoholic drinks, exercise every day and decrease the use of birth control pills. Breastfeeding has been found to decrease the risk of breast cancer development.

Although there are some factors that women can avoid to prevent breast cancer from developing, cause and effect relationships between these factors and breast cancer is still debatable. For women who are already at high risk, doctors often recommend a drug called Tamoxifen, which is known to decrease the risk by as much 50 percent when taken in five years. Still, like all medications, Tamoxifen has side effects such as hot flushes, vaginal discharges and sometimes even blood clots. Taking the drug can also lead to pulmonary emobolus, stroke and uterine cancer, although these are all isolated cases.

Another avenue that women can go to is Vitamin A, which some studies show to be effective in decreasing the risk. Still, research is still in the initial stages and nothing has been proven yet. Other things that are being linked to the breast cancer fight are phytoestrogens, which can be found in soya, Vitamin E, and Vitamin C.

But until something concrete is found in research, the only thing that women can do to ensure that they are safe from breast cancer is early detection. This can be done through daily self-examinations as well as annual check ups and mammogram tests. It is also important that women know the beginnings of breast cancer. Here are some of the signs that they should watch out for.

Lumps in the breast and in the underarms
Scaling of the skin of the breast and of the nipple
Redness in the skin of the breast and of the nipple
Changes in the size of their breasts
Discharges from the nipple

If these signs are observed, it is best to consult a specialist so that you can know whether you have breast cancer or not.

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Do You have Kidney Stones

Is there blood when you urinate or do you feel pain coming from your back or pelvis? If your answer to these two questions is yes, then you may have kidney stones in your body and the only way to be sure is to have yourself examined by a doctor.

The two symptoms mentioned are just some of the symptoms that tell you if you have kidney stones. Other symptoms include fevers or chills, feeling or being sick, frequency urinating and feeling a burning sensation when you urinate.

It is hard to tell just by how you feel if you do have kidney stones because these symptoms are also felt by those who have UTI or urinary tract infection.

When you go to your doctor, he or she will have to do a system of checks. This will include reviewing your medical history, conducting a physical examination and doing some tests.

The best way to rule out UTI is to extract a sample of urine or blood and scanned using one or two machines that may be a computed tomography (CT) scan, intravenous pyelogram (IVP), retrograde pyelogram or X-ray.

To give you a better understanding of what these machines are;

The CT scan is used not only to tell if you have a kidney stone because it can be used for other purposes. In the case of kidney stones, the doctor will tell the technician to focus on your urinary system.

The only problem with the CT scan is that it cannot detect small stones when these are located near the bladder. TO be sure, an x-ray will be done to tell the doctor its orientation, shape and size.

The Intravenous Pyelogram or IVP is another option and this can only work after you have been injected with a contrasting agent. Once this is flowing through your kidney, it will be easy for the machine to see if you have a kidney stone blocking the ureter.

There are risks for conducting this test especially if you have a slight allergic reaction to the fluid that was used.

The ultrasound has other uses and letting you know the size of your baby is just one of them. The doctor may also use this device to check if you have kidney stones located in your upper urinary tract or in your ureter. Unfortunately, it cannot be used to check for kidney stones in other parts of the body.

Another test is called the retrograde pyelogram is a cytoscopy. This test is similar to the IVP because it also uses a contrasting agent. The only difference is that once you are injected, a slam telescopic instrument is sent it to check the bladder.

In most cases, patients who may have kidney stones do not need to undergo these tests because the others mentioned have already confirmed that.

When doctors are sure that you have kidney stones and determined the type this is in your body, only then will they be able to treat it. The doctor may or may not have to give you medication. In extreme cases, surgery may be the only option.

Kidney stones happen more often to men than women. If you feel something wrong down there, don’t wait until things get worse to see your doctor.

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Hemorrhoids in Children

Even though child hemorrhoids are not a very serious health condition, they are not a typical children health disorder and this condition can usually be both a symptom and a cause of more serious health condition in the child patient.

Hemorrhoids, as we are oriented with them, are inflamed blood vessels that appear from and just about the hemorrhoid cushions that aids the anal canal to function. When one of the large blood vessels that flows through this region is put under enough tension, the vein lining swells and pulls some of the tissue.

Whether the patient is a child or an adult, if the hemorrhoids should occur on the inside of the anal duct, above the lining, then it is called internal hemorrhoid. If, on the other hand, the inflammation of the blood vessel should begin from a portion underneath the lining, it is an external hemorrhoid.

The real opening of the anal duct is called the anal verge and the lining is about two centimeters extended inside the canal from the anal verge.

The main reason that this lining is essential is because it marks the start of a big and receptive band of nerve endings that aids to regulate the anal region. Since they are nowhere close to this nerve endings, internal hemorrhoids are usually painless, if at all, unless they have prolapsed to the outside.

However, because of the location, external hemorrhoids typically, and kids are more susceptible to pain than adults.

Causes of child hemorrhoids

There are different probable causes of child hemorrhoids, varying from mere constipation to a more serious health condition such as the Crohn’s disease that damages the lower colon, to prolonged sitting in the toilet bowl straining bowel movements.

While there are few known origins that are usually normal, child hemorrhoids are very rare, so when your kid has hemorrhoids, it is very necessary to consult your pediatrician or the family doctor for proper diagnosis.

While an adult may be aware that the constipation is the primary cause of hemorrhoids (if you are not pregnant), children do not usually suffer from these problems.

One of the more severe origins of child hemorrhoids is due to portal hypertension that means that there is a retrogression of pressure in the portal blood vessel that contains blood coming from the digestive tract to the liver. A medical condition that damages the liver usually manifests their first symptoms through portal blood vessels or hypertension.

Crohn’s disease, a chronic (long-term) swelling of the bowels, is also a probable cause of child hemorrhoids. These problems should be consulted with a pediatrician, particularly in infants who cannot communicate clearly or precisely.

A major cause of hemorrhoids among children and infants is constipation, and one of the major caused of constipation is dehydration.

Dehydration is life-threatening. While it is basically a harmful condition, because of the pediatric anatomy, it works speedier on kids, who do not have the kinds of body reservoir that we use to mitigate our condition against conditions such as dehydration, sunstroke and hypothermia.

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More Information On Multiple Sclerosis

What is it?

Multiple sclerosis, or otherwise known as MS, is actually a disease that affects the nerves of the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and the spinal cord. In MS, the central nervous system starts to degenerate.

Myelin, which is the protection and insulation for the underlying nerves, is damaged in MS. Since it is responsible for the correct transmission of messages and conduction of impulses that goes along the nerves, any form of damage to it will render the nervous system useless as it may no longer have any control over the entire body. The inflammation associated with MS cause the disappearance of the myelin, leaving the nerve fibers open and completely unprotected.

It is a sad consequence that the electrical impulses being sent along the nerves begin to decelerate and then become very slow. More nerves are damaged because of this condition and the body’s normal functioning are interfered. Normal functions controlled by the body’s nervous system like walking; memory, vision, speech and writing are greatly interfered.

Its distribution in the USA

According to statistical findings, there are more than three hundred fifty thousand people, who live in the United States of American alone, have multiple sclerosis.

Multiple sclerosis, up to now, is still an idiopathic disease which means its definite cause still remains unknown. For the last two decades, scientists and researchers have done their best in finding more about the disorders that are associated with the immune system. Moreover, many findings have indicated that multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease.

The immune system acts against its own.

The body’s immune system acts as the body’s defender against foreign and harmful substances. If there is any aggressor in the midst, the immune system acts right away, identifying the enemy and attacking the invader until the invader is either dead or weak. This whole response is greatly dependent on the proper communication between the immune cells and the production of new cells for the fight against the foreign substance.

After the myelin is damaged, some of it can be repaired as most disappear once the nerves are stripped of their myelin covering. Scarring results and particles are deposited right into the scars formed. Eventually, the forming of scars will lead to the formation of plaques.

Genetics

The role of genetics is not very clear with regards to multiple sclerosis. But still, reports have determined that Eskimos, European gypsies and the African Bantus do not develop multiple sclerosis. On the other hand, the Japanese, Asians and the Native Indians of both North and South America experience multiple sclerosis but with a low incidence.

The possibility of the general population to develop MS is only one percent. However, for those who have family members, who had the disease before, or at present, increase the chance, especially if it is a first-degree relative.

A first-degree family member such as parent, sister or brother also has a one to three percent of actually having the debilitating disorder. But with twins, things become more difficult. An identical twin has a thirty percent chance of having the disease, where as the nonidentical twin gets only four percent.

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Colon Cleansing Can Prevent Colon Cancer

Cancer of the colon or colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. This type of cancer begins as a small clump of non-cancerous cells known as adenomatous polyps. There are some signs and symptoms of colon cancer that most patients feel when they have advanced stage of colon cancer such as significant change in the bowel movements, regular constipation, flatulence, rectal bleeding, severe stomach pain and lethargy.

Most experts believe that a regular colon cleansing can prevent colon cancer. They suggest that toxins that are accumulated in the colon wall can lead to the development and advancing of the cancer polyps that causes cancer.

There are many health benefits known when you undergo colon cleansing or body detoxification. Colon and body cleansing are both very important for a healthy living and they are closely similar except that a body cleansing procedure helps the whole body rather than focusing the process in a certain area like a colon cleanser does. Since colon cleansers focus on the colon itself it tends to give faster results.

However, both procedures are employed to remove harmful body toxins from our body. The main benefits of a colon cleanser is that it aids you in losing weight, increase your body’s energy, cleansing your whole digestive system, breaks down fecal wastes accumulated in the colon, reduces bloating, decreases water retention and it maintains the smooth operation and functions of your colon and the rest of your body.

Here are other things you can do to prevent colon cancer:

1. Seek medical attention if you experience similar signs and symptoms of colon cancer

Colon cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world that can be prevented during the early stages if diagnosed immediately. However, it is normal for a colon cancer patient not to feel symptoms during the early stages. Most symptoms can only be experienced during the fourth stage where one can experience severe pain.

2. If your age is 50 years old or above, ask for a colon cancer exam

About 90 per cent of people with colon cancer are 50 or older and the average diagnostic age is 64. Scientific studies prove that by age 50 or above, the ratio of people to acquire polyps in the colon is 1 in 4. Getting a diagnostic exam for colon cancer is good method of prevention

3. Ensure an active lifestyle

Most scientific research indicates that an active lifestyle can decrease the risk of colon cancer to about 40 per cent. Moderate exercise can also tend to decrease the occurrence of other factors leading to colon cancer such as obesity and diabetes.

4. Quit smoking

Smoking, as a cause of numerous diseases and cancers, is also a major factor in the development of colon cancer. When you smoke, one can increase the risk because the inhaled tobacco can transmit carcinogens to the colon and it can increase the size of the cancer polyp.

5. Avoid exposure to radiation

Radiation can also cause colon cancer. In a study conducted by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, colorectal cancer can be acquired if a person is regularly exposed to cosmic radiation.

6. Take a healthy diet

Foods that are rich in cholesterol and fat are attributed to increase the risk of colon cancer. On the other hand foods that are rich in natural fibers such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, nuts and legumes can decrease the health risk.

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