Could Pomegranates Be The New Prostate Cancer Natural Cure?

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By , November 18, 2020 12:19 pm

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Prostate cancer research has uncovered some promising early results for pomegranate juice and extracts. Learn how they may help prostate cancer, and the mechanisms by which they can affect a tumor.

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Pomegranates have long been used in traditional folk remedies to treat sore throats, inflammation, and rheumatism. And recent scientific research has suggested they are also potentially effective in both preventing and treating prostate cancer.

One study, conducted on human prostate cancer cells in lab dishes, at the University of Wisconsin, found that there were dose dependant improvements. Another study at the same facility injected mice with human prostate cancer cells. These mice developed malignancies. Some mice were fed plain water, whilst two other groups of mice were given water mixed with different concentrations of pomegranate extract.

Those mice that had water only had tumors that grew much faster than the pomegranate and water groups. The quantities given to the mice were comparable to that which people might get if they drank pomegranate juice on a daily basis. And whilst pomegranate juice hasn’t been tested on humans with prostate cancer yet, the results are very good.

The study did not indicate what aspects of pomegranate juice were responsible for slowing down prostate tumour growth. But the scientists involved did mention the antioxidant polyphenolic compounds, which are more effective than green tea and red wine.

Pomegranate extract not only inhibited the growth of cancer cells, it also worked by another means – apoptosis.

Apoptosis refers to a way that cells can die. Cancer growths are characterized by an uncontrolled growth of cells that do not follow the normal processes of cellular differentiation of regular, healthy cells. Cellular differentiation means that the characteristics of a cell change and get the functions that a mature, healthy cell would. For example, liver cells have specialized liver functions, as do prostate, breast, kidney, and all other types of cells. This is normal and healthy.

In tumour growths, although some cells fully differentiate, many only differentiate partially, and some not at all. And the tumors which have more undifferentiated cells grow faster. So, inducing cellular differentiation is one approach to cancer treatment. The other two ways that doctors and researchers try to treat cancer is by causing the death of cancerous cells. They do this through apoptosis, mentioned above, and necrosis.

In apoptosis, cell death is programmed into the cell when it is ‘born’. So the cell dies in a more natural way that is less destructive on its environment. By this I mean it doesn’t cause inflammation and the damage associated with it to neighboring cells that may be healthy. Cells die either when they reach cellular old age or when their death benefits the body as a whole. Necrosis, on the other hand, does cause inflammation.

Generally, prostate cancer grows very slowly, although it is unpredictable and can grow quickly and spread.

References:
1. John Boik, Cancer and Natural Medicine (Oregon Medical Press, 1996)
2. Australian Healthy Food, March, 2006
3. nutraingredients-usa.com/news/ng.asp?id=62811
4. nutraingredientsusa.com/news/ng.asp?id=62811

Abdominal Chemo Increases Ovarian Cancer Survival Rate

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By , November 16, 2020 9:41 am

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A large clinical test shows that giving chemotherapy directly into the stomach, as well as into a vein, can improve survival of women with advanced ovarian cancer by about sixteen months. The results of the study, which pop up in this week’s issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, prompted the National Cancer Institute to issue a statement supporting doctors to employ this plan of attack for appropriate patients.

cancer

A large clinical test shows that giving chemotherapy directly into the stomach, as well as into a vein, can improve survival of women with advanced ovarian cancer by about sixteen months. The results of the study, which pop up in this week’s issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, prompted the National Cancer Institute to issue a statement supporting doctors to employ this plan of attack for appropriate patients.

Why is this new treatment reigmine so important? Ovarian cancer is the fourth greatest reason of cancer demises in women, affecting more than 22,000 women and killing more than 16,000 in 2005. Although this disease is super treatable when saw ahead of time, virtually all cases are not noticed until they have dispersed beyond the ovaries. Because so many ovarian cancer patients are diagnosed at a later stage, it is crucial to find ways to better treatments for further progressed disease.

What is already known about ovarian cancer? virtually all women with advanced ovarian cancer get chemotherapy after surgery to get rid of the tumor. That chemotherapy is usually given into a vein and moves through the bloodstream to reach tumor cells in the stomach. Doctors have also experimented with rendering the chemotherapy straight into the abdomen through a catheter, a system called intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy. Eight clinical trials of this approach have been done, and most showed a gain to IP chemotherapy. But this technique is not widely wore, according to the study’s author, Deborah Armstrong, MD.

“There has been a prejudice against IP therapy in ovarian cancer because it’s an old idea, it requires skill and experience for the surgery and for the chemotherapy, and it’s additional complicated than IV chemotherapy,” said Armstrong, who is a medical oncologist and associate professor at the John Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center in Baltimore.

How this study was done: Women with stage III ovarian cancer were randomly assigned to get either standard chemotherapy in a vein (210 women), or a combination of chemotherapy in a vein and IP chemotherapy (205 women). The women had already had surgery that successfully removed all or most of the tumor; none had tumors remaining that were larger than 1 cm in diameter. All the women were treated with the same drugs, cisplatin and paclitaxel. Six cycles of chemotherapy were planned for both groups.

What was found? Women who had IP chemo operated long without their cancer coming back and lived longest overall. Women who had traditional chemotherapy in a vein survived about 4 years after treatment, while those who got chemotherapy in the stomach as well as a vein stomach an median of nearly 5 ?years after treatment.

That improvement is “one of the largest benefits ever observed for a new therapy in gynecologic oncology,” based on data from Stephen A. Cannistra, MD, who composed an editorial published with the study. He is a professor at Harvard Medical School and managing director of the division of gynecologic medical oncology at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston.

Nonetheless, the IP treatment was very much more difficult on the patients. Women who had this treatment had many additional terrible or life-threatening side effects, including low white blood cell counts, infection, tiredness, and anguish. Many side effects were associated to the catheters that must be introduced into the stomach to deliver the chemotherapy. These problems were so serious that fewer than half of the women designated to undergo IP chemotherapy finished all six designed treatment cycles. That makes the survival advance that good deal supplementary noteworthy, Cannistra composed.

Women who got IP therapy also reported significantly worse caliber of life during and just after treatment. By one year out, nonetheless, both groups described similar quality of life.

Discover the best alternative cancer treatments!

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Higradearticlesubmitter the easiest way to article marketing

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By , November 14, 2020 6:41 am

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Today article marketing is hot. Everyone wants to make money through free traffic, ranking, site visitors, by adsense or affiliate marketing. But everyone’s need is traffic huge traffic, everyone wants to make decent money through article marketing, article marketing is the cost effective way to ranking, traffic, search engine loves articles fresh content. They index articles more usually than any other websites.

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From Overture, a keyword suggestion tool, you will see the millions of searches done to a certain keyword. When these keywords are typed on search boxes of search engines, indexed websites containing articles with those keywords will be displayed. And this is what leads traffic to websites with keyword-rich articles. Yes, the magic word is articles.

Content is king. You can say that again. That is why writing articles is one of the most utilized Internet marketing media today. Internet surfers just can’t get enough of information on various fields. Providing information through these articles is a surefire way to drive hot traffic to your web site.

Why is this so? Here are the benefits that writing articles can give your Internet business.

1. It’s absolutely free.

Too good to be true? Not. Okay, you have to pay for your Internet Service Provider. That’s it. All you need is your thoughts, your computer, and your hands. If you have those, nothing will stop you from typing words that will make you complete that article for your website. On which aspect of that process did you really shell out any cent? Maybe later when your electric bills come.

2. Your website will be noticed in a short period of time.

Submit that article of yours to article directories that get the most web traffic and in no time your web site will be crawled. That is if you don’t forget including your resource box or byline.

3. Obtain back links automatically.

When you submit your articles to directories, surely, other websites will make use of your article too. With the copyright terms of your articles, the URL of your website will still be in tact and will subsequently direct more traffic to your website.

4. Improve your reputation through higradearticlesubmitter software easily.

As an Internet marketer, if you plainly display your products on your website, you will not gain much conversion rate. Conversion is when your traffic converts to sales. You have to show that you are knowledgeable on your field. And what better way to show that than by writing articles that will allow you some bragging rights, right?

Just make your creative juices flow and jot down or key in those ideas quickly to jumpstart your article

Which is the best skin care product?

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By , November 12, 2020 3:52 am

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Dermitage Skin Care is a one of a kind breakthrough in skin science where 2 patented technology are used to bring back a soft, and younger looking skin.

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Which is the best skin care product?

There is really nothing like a best skin care product. There really can’t be anything like ‘The best skin care product? because skin care products work differently for different people (based on the skin type to some extent). A product that is the ‘best skin care product?for one person might end up being the worst for another person. So, a more logical question to ask would be ‘What is the best skin care product for my type of skin?? However, this still is not completely logical. We tend to segregate people into 4 groups based on their skin types ?i.e. dry skin, oily skin, normal skin and sensitive skin. However, this classification is just too broad to be used definitively in determining the best skin care product. We can say ‘best skin care product for a dry skin?or ‘best skin care product for an oily skin?are better statements than just ‘best skin care product? But really, that is what it is ?’better? still not accurate.

So, it really comes to rephrasing the question to ?’What is the best skin care product for me? Yes, this is exactly the question that you should be asking, and unfortunately there is no easy answer for this. Arriving at the best skin care product for self will need some effort on your part.

First of all, you need to understand how the skin care products work. This is simple. You can consider all skin care products to be composed of 2 types of ingredients ?Active and inactive. The active ingredients are the ones that actually work on your skin. The inactive ones just help in delivering these active ingredients to your skin. Both the ingredients need to work for your skin, in order for the product to be effective (and move on to become the best skin care product for you).

Besides the ingredients, the way you apply your skin care products is equally important. In fact, this is even more important. If you do not know how to apply skin care products, you might forever be hunting for the best skin care product for yourself, when that has already passed you. Moreover, it’s also important to decide on the frequency of application (of the skin care product). The environmental factors – temperature, humidity and pollution level, also affect the selection of best skin care product. Here are a few rules that you could use to ensure that your best skin care product is really the best for you:
* Cleanse your skin before applying that best skin care product.
* Use a makeup remover instead of plain water and remove your makeup before going to bed.
* The effectiveness of active ingredients is reduced when applied over another product e.g. over moisturiser. So apply that best skin care product first and then apply a bit of moisturizer if needed.
* Apply the products on moist and warm skin.
* You will have to experiment with a few products before you arrive at the one that is the best skin care product for you.
* Do not exfoliate too much or too hard.
* Vary your skin care routine as per the seasons (winter/summer etc), changes in environmental factors and changes in your skin type

Note that the best skin care product cannot be determined overnight. It’s only through experiment (and awareness) that you can find the ‘Best skin care product?(for you).

Sun Exposure & UV Rays: The Basic Facts

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By , November 10, 2020 12:53 am

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The human body benefits from sun exposure. And a little bit of tan protects you from the sun. Right? Wrong! The body does indeed benefit from sun exposure. But a little bit of tan does not necessarily protect you from the sun. Let’s see why.

sun exposure,uv rays, melanin,vitamin D, tanning,UVA, UVB,skin cancer, sun damage, cancer

The human body benefits from sun exposure. And a little bit of tan protects you from the sun. Right? Wrong!

The body does indeed benefit from sun exposure. But a little bit of tan does not necessarily protect you from the sun. Let’s see why.

The sun’s rays are a major source of vitamin D and help the body’s systems acquire much needed calcium for building healthy bones. However, most people don’t need to spend large amounts of time exposed to the sun in order to get their required amount of vitamin D.

In fact, the body’s health can actually suffer negative effects when it’s exposed too long to the sun’s rays, especially if it’s unprotected. Results can vary from skin and eye damage to immune system suppression and ultimately cancer, even for the young.

So let’s look at the basic facts about sun exposure.

There are three kinds of invisible ultraviolet (UV) rays in the sun that reaches earth: UVA, UVB, and UVC. When these rays come in contact with our skin, affects of UVA and UVB can be – tans, burns and other reactions (e.g. like acne and cancer).

It’s also notable that the effects of all UV rays are not the same. Depending upon the season, time of day and place on the planet in relation to the sun – (i.e. your altitude and latitude), the rays?intensities vary. For example, during summertime, UV rays are at their strongest. Between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., the rays are strongest. And close to the equator and at high altitudes (where air and cloud cover are less, resulting in increased harmful penetration of UV rays into the environment), the rays are also strongest.

In order to protect ourselves from the harmful UV rays, let’s look at the skin’s first defense – melanin.

Melanin is a chemical present in a variety of colors and concentrations in most people’s skin that helps with defense from the sun. Melanin reacts with UV rays and absorbs them. Or rather, to be more specific, the rays act upon melanin, causing the melanin to spread out or grow, increasing its presence in response to the sun’s exposure. The result? A ‘sun tan? The darker the skin color, the more melanin the skin has for protection. And ‘tanning?for darker color is included here; ‘color?does not have to refer to just the original skin color.

A word of caution?
Tanning may look great on the surface, – but the amount and length of time a person is exposed to the sun, determines the amount of possible damage. It also determines the future risk of damage that’s likely.

For example, people who are exposed to the sun in huge doses like ship crews, field workers and beach surfers, are at higher risks for skin damage than indoor workers. What happens is that when the amount of UV exposure is greater than what the skin’s melanin can handle, sunburn can result. And those with lighter, fairer skin, who have less melanin, absorb less UV, suffering less protection.

Since research has shown that UV damage from the sun is the main cause of skin cancer, (with as high as 20% of some populations developing skin cancer during their lifetime), we need to take a proactive approach in relation to sun exposure to avoid harmful skin damage.

As we say colloquially here in Australia – “Slip, Slop, Slap? (I.e. ‘Slip?on a shirt, ‘Slop?on a hat, ‘Slap?on a sunscreen). Look after the skin you’ve got, because you’re the one who will be living with it!

Vitamin E, Skin Care & Healthy Aging

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By , November 7, 2020 9:05 pm

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Dermitage Skin Care is a one of a kind breakthrough in skin science where 2 patented technology are used to bring back a soft, and younger looking skin.

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Vitamin E and Healthy Aging

We all know the benefits of Vitamin E when it comes to skin care. Skin care products such as Dermitage Skin Care, uses Vitamin E to replenish skin cells that have aged and died to bring it back by making it actively regenerating and producing younger, healthier and smoother skin as you age. But aside from all these skin care benefits, Vitamin E are also important for older people.

Did you know that at least 200 UI daily of vitamin E can help fight various diseases? Studies found that alpha tocopherol, or Vitamin E has proven to fight particular diseases. Studies show that Vitamin E may help with oxygen preserving and potentially offers cure for various disease. Taking 200 IU daily may trim down up to 40% or more of oxygen preserves, which controls bodily organs and the heart. The vitamin seems to have a “anti-coagulant?that has proven to support the overall bodily functions. Vitamin E was discovered to reduce blood clotting and can help prevent heart disease.

The vitamin is said to assist with dilating flowing blood vessels. This means the heart will receive the blood flow it deserves to stay healthy. Vitamin E has also been linked to an anti-aging solution. Many doctors believe that this helpful vitamin will stabilize a person’s overall development or maturity. In fact, German doctors called Vitamin E the fountain of youth. In extensive studies, vitamin E was found to promote blood flow. According to the findings, Vitamin E when present is an resister to aging.

Vitamin E is linked to promoting hemoglobin. Since aging has an unknown affect on blood cells and bone marrow, doctors believe that Vitamin E’s support to hemoglobin is a potential solution to solving disease related to hemoglobin. Our hemoglobin structure detains oxygen for an extended time, which means that oxygen will flow smoothly. Vitamin E has been linked to reduced risks of disease, since it is said that oxygen will stay within the cavities of hemoglobin at a lengthier time. This means that the person will live a healthy, youthful life.

Sometimes as we grow older, the blood that forms in our system slows. Vitamin E works to allow blood to flow smoothly. In view of the facts, doctors found that this vitamin may reduce the risks of anemia. Vitamin E was discovered to perhaps purify the blood, which allows it to flow smooth throughout the body. As we grow older, our body experiences many changes, which prompts aging plaques. These plaques when build will cause wrinkling, sagging, crowfeet, and other aging signs. Vitamin E works to maintain metabolism by potentially keeping away fatty acids, which are saturated. (Learn more about hydrocarbons and peroxides, which are aging toxins)

At what time saturated fats join with Vitamin E to slow aging. We need a degree of fatty acids, yet when the acids build it creates elements that promote aging. Vitamin E has shown signs of controlling the blood fats, keeping the fats at bay. Blood fat is also linked to aging. Therefore, we can see that vitamin E has much to offer. Yet, some experts argue that Vitamin E has side-effects that could cause harm; many other experts uphold the ability of support that Vitamin E offers.

Vitamin E has also shown signs of reducing ailments of the muscles. The healthy regimen of vitamin E daily according to experts can reduce arthritic symptoms. According to experts, arthritis and its sister components may link to rapid aging.

Vitamin E has shown to reduce leg cramps. In fact, studies were conducted by qualifying doctors who tested their patients. The patients complained of leg cramp, which doctors recommended Vitamin E. During this particular study the patient who ceased Vitamin E reported cramping in the legs. The patient was asked to start up the vitamin once more and when he returned to visit his doctor, the leg cramps ceased. The studies were conducted at the California or American Colleges of Physician. To learn more about vitamin E and what it can do for you, research your topic to find your purpose.

Understanding and Recognizing Leukemia Symptoms

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By , November 5, 2020 6:36 pm

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Leukemia is a sort of cancer of the blood and marrow. The disease is characterized through the

leukemia symptoms, leukemia causes

Leukemia is a sort of cancer of the blood and marrow. The disease is characterized through the overproducing of immature blood cells (stem cells) that aren’t able to fully develop and carry out the activities of normal blood cells.

Each type of mature blood cells has specific traits and roles inside the body. White blood cells or leukocytes have an important role in the immune system, contributing to overcome infections. White blood cells also help in healing flesh wounds and cuts. Red blood cells or erythrocytes contain hemoglobin, which has a great importance in transporting oxygen to the cells within the organism. Red blood cells are vital for the process of cell respiration, carrying oxygen to cells and removing carbon dioxide from them. Platelets have an important role in repairing damage at the level of blood vessels, accumulating to seal any cuts or tares.

Leukemia leads to the accumulation and crowding of diseased stem cells at the level of the bone marrow, which decreases the normal production of healthy blood cells. The lack of normal blood cells leads to the appearance of leukemia symptoms. It is important to understand that despite the fact that leukemia causes an over production of white blood cells, these cells are immature and can’t substitute for normal blood cells. Due to this, the body is exposed to many forms of infection.

The most common leukemia symptoms are: anemia (insufficient number of red blood cells in the bloodstream), risks of bleeding (insufficient number of platelets in the bloodstream), nose bleeding, bleeding of the oral cavity, predisposition to bruising, high exposure to infections due to lack of white blood cells, improper healing.

Other leukemia symptoms may be fatigue, lack of concentration, poor psychical performance, fever, loss of appetite and weight loss.

In the case of chronic leukemia, which facilitates the accumulation of diseased blood cells in different places inside the body, the leukemia symptoms may be migraines, insomnia, decreased vision and hearing, loss of balance, faints and seizures. Some of these leukemia symptoms need immediate medical intervention, as they may lead to further complications.

Sometimes people with leukemia may have enlarged liver and spleen, causing abdominal swelling or enlarged lymph nodes. The body glands of the organism can also be affected by leukemia.

Leukemia symptoms have a non-specific character. This means that they can be misleading in establishing an appropriate diagnose, as they may also occur in the cases of other diseases. Medical professionals are the only persons able to distinguish leukemia from other illnesses with resembling symptoms. Proper diagnose is very important in order to quickly begin the administration of specific treatment. Blood analysis and careful body examinations can reveal the presence of leukemia. Leukemia is considered to have a high rate of mortality and although the disease can be overcome through treatment and therapy, it can cause death if its presence is not noticed in time. Therefore, prompt intervention is required for leukemia, regardless of its type.

Prostate Cancer

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By , November 3, 2020 3:55 pm

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Prostate cancer is the third as far as the incidence rate is concerned among malignant cancers in men. This number is constantly increasing, which is in a way connected with a longer life span among male population and better diagnostic methods.

cancer, prostate, diagnosis, therapy

Copyright 2006 Radoslaw Pilarski

Etiology

Etiology of prostate cancer development is not completely known. Factors that can influence the creation and development of this type of cancer include:

genetic factors ?increase in risk of falling ill among men with a positive family history regarding the prostate cancer. Mutations of suppressor genes are also taken into consideration (p53)

dietetic factors ?food rich in saturated fatty acids probably increases the risk of falling ill whereas the consumption of soya and rice may have a beneficial protective effect racial and geographical factors ?Afro-Americans are 100% more likely to fall ill, whereas the lowest death rate is reported in Japan and in China

occupational factors ?cancerogenous influence of heavy metals and toxins infectious factors ?viral infection may lead to/ be the cause of anaplasia of adenocyte cells of prostate

Histopathologically, 95% prostate cancer cases occur in the form of adenocarcinoma. Other types (primary intracellular cancer, squamous carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, and sarcoma) are rarely met. Adenocarcinoma usually develops in the peripheral area of the prostate (85%), in the transition area (25% ) and in the central area (5%).

Symptoms

In symptomatology of the prostate cancer, 4 clinical forms are distinguished:

1) visible form with distinct pathological symptoms 2) latent form (carcinoma latens) with no distinct pathological symptoms found 3) hidden form (ca occultum) which is detected in the case of distinct ailments caused by the existence of remote metastases, however changes in prostate are not found in the course of per rectum examination 4) accidentally detected form – based on histopathological test of the gland that was removed because of prostate overgrowth, or based on biochemical tests (PSA) During the development of prostate cancer, an induction phase that lasts about 30 years which is clinically invisible can be distinguished. During the next stage – in situ phase (5-10 years) and invasive phase (1 year), ailments connected with the local growth of tumour start to appear. During this period, symptoms connected with sub bladder obstacle appear including mainly: – pallakiuria – nycturia – weak urine stream – painful vesical tenesmus – impression of incompletion of bladder emptying The above-mentioned symptoms are typical of cancer and in some cases they may suggest mild overgrowth of prostate, or neurogenic or athermatous bladder disorders. During the dissemination phase (about 5 years), prostate cancer develops continuously infiltrating surrounding organs, such as: urinary bladder, rectum, ureters, pelvic walls and leading to urinary retention in kidneys and to secondary failure of function. Ailments typical for this period include: – haematuria – dysuria – urinary incontinence – erection disorders – aches of perineum, lumbar area and anus – haematospermia Metastases spread through the lymphatic vessels and the vascular system. Symptoms caused by the existence of remote metastases are as follows: – osteodynia and pathological fractures – pressure symptoms and spinal paralysis – lymphadema of limbs – clotting disorders – cachexy – coma

DIAGNOSTICS

In order to diagnose the prostate cancer, patient should undergo per rectum tests (DRE), PSA concentration (prostate specific antigen) in blood serum should be determined, ultrasonography per rectum examination (TRUS – transrectal ultrasound) should be done and if there is a suspicion of prostate cancer, histopathological test of the material obtained through a per rectum thick-needle biopsy done under the ultrasound control should take place. Histopathological test is the only test that confirms the presence of cancerous cells in the prostate gland area. DRE, which is an examination of sensitivity of 80% sensitivity and of specificity of 60%, enables to seize changes in the area of the prostate such as consistency change, palpable nodules and hardenings. It is the base for sending a patient to a diagnostic biopsy. At present, it is believed that cytological diagnosis achieved through a fine-needle biopsy is not sufficient to make a right diagnosis. It results from the fact that the assessment according to Gleason’s classification is an important prognostic factor for the prostate cancer (see: prognostic factors). That is why a thick-needle biopsy is performed. Ultrasound use enables to take precise samples from suspicious foci. If there are no changes in TRUS picture, “sextant biopsy” is done (samples got for several places).

Recommendations for the biopsy of prostate gland: 1) palpable suspicion of the prostate cancer 2) PSA value over 15ng/ml regardless of DRE or TRUS tests 3) PSA value between 4 and 15 ng/ml with abnormalities detected during DRE or TRUS tests 4) PSA value exceeds the norm for a given age in the case of a positive family history regarding the prostate cancer

Recommendations for TRUS: 1) PSA between 4 and 12 ng/ml with abnormalities detected 2) questionable result of DRE test 3) necessity of a thick-needle biopsy Other diagnostic tests, such as CT and urography are not routinely performed because their value is questionable as far as the assessment of local stage and invasion of adjacent lymph nodes is concerned. Nowadays, magnetic resonance tomography done using transrectal coli (endorectal coil MRI – ERMR) to observe the prostate arouses great interest. Despite the increased sensitivity of the degree of the local stage, costs of the test do not allow for its routine use in the prostate cancer diagnosis. Scintigraphy of the skeleton is the most sensitive test (97%) in bone metastases detection. It is assumed that a patient with PSA under 10 ng/ml does not undergo scintigraphy because the probability of metastases is low.

Screening:

Screening: It is recommended that patients aged over 50 should undergo per rectum tests and PSA level tests every year.

PROGNOSTIC FACTORS:

Three groups of prognostic factors can be distinguished in the case of the prostate cancer:

1) development stage according to TNM 2) differentiation degree of the cancer based on the classification of Gleason and Mostofi 3) PSA level (prostate-specific antigen) in serum TNM classification

Preoperative assessment of the stage of the prostate cancer is made based on the above-mentioned tests.

T-stage: primary tumour

Tx – primary tumour cannot be assessed T0 – no evidence of primary tumour T1 – clinically unapparent tumour; not palpable or visible by per rectum imaging T1a – incidental tumour found in histopathological tests after transurethral resection of the prostate or after operational adenectomy: found in 5% or less resected tissue T1b – as above; found in more than 5% resected tissue T1c – tumour identified histopathologically by a needle biopsy (because of high PSA) T2 – tumour confined within the prostate gland T2a – tumour involves less than half of one lobe T2b – tumour involves more than half of one lobe only T2c – tumour involves both lobes T3 – tumour extends through the prostatic capsule T3a – extracapsular extensions (unilateral) T3b – extracapsular extensions (bilateral) T3c – tumour invades seminal vesicles T4 – tumour is fixed, invades adjacent structures other than seminal vesicles T4a – tumour invades bladder neck and/or external sphincter and/or rectum T4b – tumour invades levator muscles and/or pelvic wall N-stage: regional lymph nodes

Nx – regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed N0 – no regional lymph node metastases N1 – metastasis to a single regional lymph node with the diameter under 2cm N2 – metastasis to a single regional lymph node with the diameter > 2cm but < 5cm N3 - metastases to regional lymph nodes with the diameter over 5cm M-stage: remote metastases Mx – remote metastasis cannot be assessed M0 – no remote metastases M1 – remote metastases M1a – non-regional lymph nodes M1b – bones M1c – other sites According to Whitmor-Catalon classification, grades A, B, C, and D correspond to T1, T2, T3 and T4 of TNM classification respectively. Degree of cancer differentiation: Degree of differentiation is defined according to 2 classifications: by Mostofi and by Gleason. Mostofi’s classification uses a 3-grade assessment of differentiation dependent on the degree of cell anaplasia ?grading (G1-G3). The higher grade, the lower differentiation of cancer tissue, the greater atypy and at the same time, malignancy. In the case of a 10-grade Gleason system, the two extreme histological images in the preparation are assessed and then, added to produce a final grade. PSA is a proteolyctic enzyme responsible for sperm melting. It is mainly produced by glandular epithelium, it might be also produced in organs such as salivary glands, pancreas and mammary gland and by clear cell carcinoma. Commonly used norm is the following: 0-4 ng/ml. Such concentration of PSA is found among 97% of men over 40. The level over 12 ng/ml is always connected with pathology. Difficulties with diagnosis are found among patients who have this level between 5-10 ng/ml because it may both stem from the prostate cancer or a mild overgrowth of the prostate, which causes the necessity of diagnostic methods use, such as TRUS. This test makes it possible to determine PSA density (PSAD – PSA density) – PSA concentration converted to prostate volume unit. It should be under 0.15 ng/ml/g. In the case of prostate cancer differentiation and mild overgrowth of prostate, free to total PSA (PSA F/T) is used. If it is over 20%, one may assume the presence of cancerous cells in the gland. PSA level does not correlate well enough with the natural development of the prostate cancer. However, it is useful as a prognostic factor after the treatment applied and in prognosis determination. However, high final levels indicate low survival rate. TREATMENT Proceeding strategy in patients with the prostate cancer depends on the degree of histological malignancy, the degree of local stage of development, coexisting diseases and age of a patient. There are many controversies as far as the choice of treatment is concerned. Radical treatment is possible in T1, T2 and N0 and Mo stages. In advanced cases (T3, T4, N-+, M-+), the procedure is restricted to delay the cancer progression and mitigate its effects (palliative treatment). Surgery treatment – radical prostatectomy The surgery consists in the prostate gland removal together with spermatic vesicles and adjacent tissues. Surgery is done through retropubic, transcoccgeal, perineal approach or through laparoscopy. Lymphadenectomy constitutes an integral part of the surgery. If the approach makes it impossible to remove the gland and lymph nodes (perineal approach) at the same time, a separate surgery is carried out. It precedes the operation proper. It is believed that cancerous cells found in the removed lymph nodes are the reason why prostatectomy cannot be performed. Invasion of lymph nodes to a certain extent suggests PSA level over 40ng/ml together with grade >7 in Gleason’s scale.

Recommendations for surgery:

1) cancer limited to the prostate gland (T1BN0M0Gx – T2N0M0Gx, T1AN0M0G3) 2) predictable life span over 10 years 3) consent of a patient If positive chirurgical margins, capsule infiltration or cancerous changes in the removed lymph nodes are found in postoperative microscopic assessment, the prognosis is worse ?such patients are qualified for palliative treatment. The death rate in the postoperative period does not exceed 5%. Intraoperative complications first of all include: bleeding from Santorini’s plexus, damage of rectum wall, underpinning of ureter. Early complications after surgery: thrombotic and embolic complications (phlebothrombosis 3-12%, lung embolism 2-5%) and lymphocele. Late postoperative complications after prostatectomy include: urinary incontinence, erection disorders and narrowing of urethro-vesicular junction).

Radiotherapy

Apart from radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy is an effective method of treatment for patients with regional advanced prostate cancer. In radical treatment, the most frequently done using radiation from external sources, the dose of 50-70 Gy in fractions continuing over 5-7 weeks are given. T1ABC – T2ABCG1 and T1ABCG2 stages require radiation limited to the prostate. In other cases, area that is radiated includes adjacent lymph nodes as well. In recent years, multidimensional imaging with CT (3D conformal radiotherapy) is used in the treatment planning.

Brachytherapy constitutes another method that is used.

Recommendations for radical radiotherapy of the prostate:

1) prostate cancer confined with the organ 2) sufficiently long predictable survival span 3) no disorders in lower urinary tract 4) no disorders in rectum and colon 5) consent of patient to carry out treatment 6) early complications of radiation energy treatment (30% of patients) include dysuria, haematuria, diarrhoea, rectal tenesmus, inflammation of large intestine and rectum. Among later complications (11% of patients) chronic diarrhea, ulceration of rectum, bladder neck stenosis and intestinal fistula stenosis are observed.

Control of patients after radical prostatectomy and radical radiotherapy:

– per rectum test, PSA level in blood serum each 3 months. PSA level should be lower than 1 ng/ml (after radical prostatectomy it should be near to 0). Increase over 0.5 ng/ml within a year means failure of radiotherapy. Hormonotherapy

Hormonal therapy is mainly used as palliative treatment in advanced prostate cancer. It makes it possible to stop symptoms of the disease for some time and then, further progression of the disease takes place. Nowadays, the use of therapy in pulsation system is considered as it delays the development of hormone-resistant cell clones.

Ways of hormonal treatment include: 1) surgery castration (orchidectomy) 2) anti-androgens a) non-steroid b) steroid 3) analogues LH-RH 4) oestrogens, progestogens, inhibitors of androgens synthetase Hormonotherapy by analogues LH-RH is also recommended before planned radical radiotherapy. In the case of hormone-resistant cancer, treatment with combined cytoctatic and hormone (estramustine), however without significant effects.

PROGNOSIS

Prognosis depends on the development stage, degree of differentiation and PSA level (see: prognostic factors).

In T1A, B stage prognosis is good. 10-years survival 35-80%, death rate of the cancer 7-30%. In T2 stage, overall survival equals 34-85%, death rate equals 8-26%. In T3 stage, among patients who undergo non-invasive treatment for 9 years, overall death rate equalled 63%, from cancer ?30%. Depending on the degree of cancer differentiation, 10-year survival of patients is the following: for cells well differentiated – 81%, for cells moderately differentiated – 58% and for cells poorly differentiated – 26%.

Skin Cancer Screening Tour Is Making A Difference

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By , November 1, 2020 12:27 pm

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More than one million people will be diagnosed with skin cancer this year. Fortunately, a screening tour is helping to warn people about skin cancer and improve those statistics.

Skin Cancer Screening Tour Is Making A Difference

More than one million people will be diagnosed with skin cancer this year. Moreover, the incidence of skin cancer is on the rise, making early detection and treatment more critical than ever. To raise awareness and encourage regular skin examinations with a dermatologist, Doak Dermatologics, a leading specialty pharmaceutical company, and The Skin Cancer Foundation have joined forces on an innovative public service campaign called The Skin Cancer Screening Tour.

Free Skin Exams Offered

A 38-foot, custom-built Mobile Diagnosis Vehicle (MDv) is traveling across the country offering the public free skin cancer examinations by local, board-certified dermatologists in more than 20 cities. The Tour kicked off in early March at Fisherman’s Wharf in San Francisco and has traveled to Los Angeles before heading to Phoenix, Dallas, Houston and Tampa, so far.

The Skin Cancer Screening Tour is already making a difference. Dermatologists volunteering at the MDv have conducted more than 1,000 patient examinations while looking for four primary forms of skin cancer or precancerous skin conditions. So far, the doctors have identified incidences of these conditions in a number of people, including:

• 271 with Actinic Keratosis (AK)-AK affects 1.3 million people annually. AK is the most common type of precancerous skin lesion. If left untreated, AK can lead to Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

• 24 with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)-SCC is a form of skin cancer that affects 200,000 Americans each year. SCCs can metastasize (spread) quickly.

• 111 with Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)-BCC is a common form of skin cancer, affecting more than 800,000 Americans annually. Chronic exposure to sunlight is most often the cause of BCC, which occurs most frequently on exposed parts of the body.

• 11 with Melanoma-Melanoma is the most serious form of skin cancer and has increased more rapidly than any other form of skin cancer during the past 10 years. By 2010, the number of Americans with melanomas is projected to rise to 1 in 50. If melanoma is diagnosed and removed early, it is almost 100 percent curable.

“We’re very proud of the results The Skin Cancer Screening Tour has achieved so far,” says Daniel Glassman, president and CEO of Bradley Pharmaceuticals, Inc., the parent company of Doak Dermatologics. “We hope this program will encourage those at risk for skin cancer to be aware of the need to visit a dermatologist regularly.”

Ovarian Cancer, Tea, and An Ounce Of Prevention

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By , October 30, 2020 9:32 am

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Ovarian cancer is an illness that progresses quickly. Discover why one female doctor calls a woman’s ovaries her female balls, and her unique view on what they may be saying when they develop cancer. Also, find out what common ingredient reduced a woman’s risk of ovarian cancer by 46%

cancer ovarian tea, ovarian cancer prevention, ovarian cancer, cancer tea

Dr Christiane Northrup has some interesting insights into the emotional and energetic issues associated with ovarian cancer. Whilst it is impossible to generalize emotional and energetic responses, she highlights the issue of rage in ovarian cancers. She describes the ovaries as being ‘female balls’ which means they relate to an active participation in the world in a way that expresses our unique creative potential, as women, on an individual basis.

She says: “…we as women must be open to the uniqueness of our creations and their own energies and impulses, without trying to force them into predetermined forms. Our ability to yield to our creativity, to acknowledge that we cannot control it with our intellects, is the key to understanding ovarian power.” (p187, Women’s Bodies, Women’s Wisdom)

She relates the issue of rage as deriving from being in an abusive relationship – not necessarily physically abusive, though of course this could be the case. And it may not necessarily be a personal or intimate relationship. It could be with work, societal, or even spiritual. But it embodies a way of relating and dealing with something or someone, where the woman involved feels controlled by the situation and does not believe in her ability to change it, or herself. It is a denial of her innate power and self-sovereignty. A denial of a woman’s innate dignity, creativity, spirituality, and complexity.

Interestingly, Dr Northrup notes that ovarian cancer is linked to a diet high in fat and dairy food. Dairy products in Oriental medicine, are associated with the liver meridian. Meridians are energy conduits, and though they have a specific anatomy, they are not equated necessarily with the organs of the same name, as understood in conventional western medicine. The emotion associated with a liver meridian that is out of balance, is rage and anger.

Oriental medicine believes that diseases start in our energetic body first, and then progress to the physical body. And certainly not all women who have a high fat and high dairy diet develop ovarian cancer. Dr Northrup suggests that women take care of their ovaries and uterus by reclaiming and expressing whatever this deep creative energy is for them. She suggests taking the time to do this daily.

A recent scientific study has also found that drinking two cups or more of tea a day can reduce the risk of ovarian cancer by 46%. This study was done in Sweden over a 15 year period. Sweden is a country where there is a higher risk of ovarian cancer, as are other countries with a high dairy consumption (Denmark and Switzerland).

References:
http://www.nutraingredients-usa.com/news/ng.asp?id=64537
Dr Christiane Northrup, Women’s Bodies, Women’s Wisdom (Piatkus, 1995)

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